Site preparation and the major sub-structural elements (in foundation). The types of foundations. Materials used in the construction of foundations. The different foundation designs and methods of constructing foundations. The sustainability of various types of foundations and their construction methods. Factors which influence the choice of foundations. Setting out buildings on site. Manually measured drawings of existing buildings manually. Measured drawings of existing buildings with the use of software/digital measuring apps such ARPlan 3D, easy measure, roomscan pro, archisnapper or compass. Local and international building codes and regulations associated with the materials, design and construction of foundations.